ARCADIA ANGELIC SANCTUARY
Interfaith Ministry & Holistic Wellness House
WOMEN PASTORS IN THE EARLY CHURCH
A Biblical Exposition Showing That Women Too Are Called to Leadership
by Pastor Nancy Mercier
WHO SAYS WOMEN CAN’T BE PASTORS?
As an Ordained Interfaith Minister and the Pastor of a non-denominational, registered church or ministry, my leadership role and teachings of an Inclusive Spiritual Philosophy with no creeds or dogmas, is legitimate and lawfull; however, from a biblical, Christian perspective, some question the validity of my pastoral/ministerial role because I’m a woman, and the Bible says in, 1 Timothy 2:11-12 that women are prohibited from functioning as leaders in the Church. This is also the scriptural verse that’s primarily brought up, again and again, from those who challenge my position or the right of a woman to be a pastor or church leader.
Despite what is said or “implied” in, 1 Timothy 2:11-12, I will present evidence found in the Bible, the Talmud. and Papal decrees that say otherwise. This statment may disturbe you as it obviously did with one of my social media followers who challenged me with this question, “Can you show me one place in the Bible where a woman ever functioned as a pastor?” I replied, “If you will first show me one place where a man ever functioned as a pastor!” This challenger gracefully admited that he could not find a single example, and after presenting him with the information that follows, he has since become a devout member of my Church.
EISEGESIS vs. EXEGESIS
The answer to the challenger's question above demonstrates just how much we read into the Biblical texts. This is known as eisegesis - to read something “into” the text that is not there. On the other hand, exegesis means to “take out” or extract from what is there. It is so easy to practice eisegesis and read into the Bible our own prejudices, assumptions and traditions. The Roman Catholic Church, the largest of all Christian denominations, is guilty of eisegesis in many areas, but none so much as in the development of its doctrine of women and their role in the Church. An honest exegetical examination of the appropriate passages, however, reveals a very different view.
A PASTOR IS A SHEPHERD
The Bible says very little about pastors. In fact, as a term for ministers of the church in Cenchrea, it’s mentioned only once in Ephesians 4:11. While the word is familiar to us from modern usage, we are uncertain as to the exact role of pastors in the Bible or how they functioned in relation to elders, bishops and other leaders. Probably all these roles were fluid, being in the formative stages.
The meaning of the Bible word "pastor" is "shepherd," and so we think of pastors as leaders who tend a flock. Psalm 23 speaks of the Lord as a Shepherd, teaching, leading, guiding and providing for us. Jesus called Himself the Good Shepherd, setting a model for all true spiritual leaders who lay down their lives for the sheep. When Jesus called Peter the second time after His resurrection, He asked him to "feed my sheep." Thus, pastors are to nurture people and help them to grow.
MARY, MOTHER OF JOHN MARK
While the Bible does not tell us specifically what pastors did, we do know that both men and women provided spiritual leadership for churches which met in their homes. In the early church, almost all Christian meetings were held in private homes. Among these house-church pastors was Mary, the mother of John Mark, who later became a missionary with the apostles Paul and Barnabas. It was to her house church that Peter came in Acts 12:12 after an angelic visitor set him free from prison. The Bible says that many had assembled there and were praying, no doubt petitioning God for Peter's release. Their prayers were answered!
Another house church leader was Chloe, according to I Corinthians 1:11. In that passage, Paul relates that "some of Chloe's household " had reported that there was strife among the Corinthian Christians. Those Chloe sent with this message to Paul were probably Christians who were members of her house church. They may have been relatives or household servants, or they may have been Christians who lived in the area and gathered at her home for worship. These believers would have come under Chloe's spiritual guidance, care and protection. But Chloe's influence extended beyond her own flock. Evidently, she had sent a deputation from her house church to Paul, who knew her or knew of her, to inform him of the need for correction in the Corinthian church. She was a trusted leader and source of reliable information for the apostle Paul.
Acts 16:14-15, 40 tells us about Lydia, Paul's first European convert to Jesus, who offered Paul hospitality in her home. Scripture relates that when Lydia was converted, her entire household was baptized and that her home became the first meeting place for European Christians. Lydia was a business woman who traded in valuable, dyed garments. The fact that Scripture mentions no husband or father indicates the high prominence of this woman. Since first-century Greek and Roman women were almost always under the legal guardianship of a husband or father, Lydia may well have been a wealthy widow or only daughter who inherited her parents' estate. Thus, she became the head of her own household. She either managed the family business or developed a business of her own after her husband's or father's death.
The Book of Acts says that Lydia's entire household was baptized upon her conversion to Christ. This follows the custom of ancient Roman families. Under paganism, household gods were believed to protect and help the family and its enterprises. Thus, it was the duty of members of these households, relatives, slaves, and their families to worship the gods adopted by the head of the household.
Roman households were often large since almost all businesses were home-based before the industrial age. Those who worked for Lydia in her business, and possibly others engaging in the trade who belonged to the dye-makers guild, would have been among her converts. By virtue of her position as head of household, Lydia had the opportunity and responsibility to lead all of its members to Christ and then to establish and lead them in the faith. This put her in a similar position to the modern-day pastor. To fulfill part of this responsibility, Lydia invited Paul to come and preach in her home.
Paul and Silas established their gospel mission headquarters in Lydia's house and no doubt preached there regularly. After their release from prison, Scripture tells us that they returned to Lydia's and, having met with the brethren, exhorted them. This may have been the first church planted on European soil, and its pastor was a woman.
Another New Testament woman who led a house church was Nympha (Col. 4:15). Paul sent greetings to her and to the church at her house. Some modern scholars try to get around this by saying that Nympha was "just" the hostess, not the pastor. If that were so, who did pastor her house church, and why would Paul so rudely fail to greet the pastor as well as the hostess?
In Romans 16:1 Paul commends to the church at Romeour sister Phoebe who is a servant of the church in Cenchrea. Paul refers to Phoebe as a servant which is the Greek word diakonos. Diakonos, or its verb form, is translated minister in 23 other places in the New Testament. For example, in Eph. 3:7, Paul says that he became a minister (diakonos) according to the gift of the grace of God. Phoebe, therefore, was a minister, probably a pastor, from the church in Cenchrea. This is borne out by vs. 2 where Paul refers to her as a helper of many and of myself also. The Greek word translated helper in this verse is prostates and, according to Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon, means to set over, to rule, superintend, preside over, protect and care for. When this passage is examined apart from our traditions and prejudicial assumptions, the evidence is overwhelming that Phoebe functioned in what we would today call pastoral ministry.
Another woman house-pastor was Prisca, or Priscilla, as Paul often affectionately calls her. Romans 16:3-5 expresses his gratitude to her and her husband, Aquilla. This couple had a team ministry and worked with Paul in planting the gospel in Rome, Corinth and Ephesus. In his Roman letter, Paul sends greetings to the church that met in their house, which they pastored together.
It has often been pointed out by Greek scholars that Paul's practice of mentioning Prisca's name before that of her husband emphasizes that she was the more prominent leader. Just as today we would address a letter "Mr. and Mrs.," so in ancient times, the husband's name was customarily given before the wife's. Prisca must have been an outstanding Christian worker for Paul to have reversed custom by honouring her in this way.
In verse 7 of the same chapter, Paul sends greetings to Andronicus and Junia who are of note among the apostles. Junia is a feminine name and so we have here a woman who is recognized by Paul as an apostle. The early church father, John Chrysostom, commenting on this verse, said, "Oh how great is the devotion of this woman, that she should be even counted worthy of the appellation of apostle." If a woman can function as an apostle, may she not also function as a pastor.
The brief, personal letter II John is addressed to a church and its pastor, a woman with whom the apostle John evidently had warm ties. John opens the letter, "to the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth. . ." "Children" was a term of endearment that John used for Christian believers (I. John 2:1, 12, 18, 28). "Truth" was a term John often used in his writings for the revelation of Jesus (See, for example, John 1:14, 17; 8:32; 16:13; I. John 1:6-8; 2:4, 21; 3:19; II. John 4; III John 3-4.) The word "elect," while it usually refers to believers as chosen by God for salvation, can also be used to refer to the ordained clergy. The second-century church father Clement of Alexandria does this repeatedly in his Stromata book 6, chapter 13. John's use of these terms plus the general tone of the letter with its pastoral direction as in verse 10 demonstrate that II John was written to a Christian church, not just a family.
While scholars agree that II John was addressed to a church, most balk at the idea that the "elect lady" was its pastor. They try to get around this by spiritualizing these terms, saying that they are metaphors for the church. This approach ignores the universal Greek practice of naming a letter's recipient(s) at the beginning. Without an addressee or location, it cannot explain to whom or how the letter was delivered. It also ignores the plain sense of the text. Additionally, its logic is inconsistent because if both the "lady" and the "children" stand for the church, how could the letter be written to "the church and the church?" If so, to which church is it written? No one writes a letter to a symbol but to a real person or group.
Interestingly, both of the Greek words in II John 1 which are ordinarily translated into English as "elect" and "lady" were also used in the first century as women's names just as today we might name a girl "grace" or "Missy." A number of Greek manuscripts of II John 1 use initial capitals for either or both of these words, indicating personal usage.
In the second century, Clement of Alexandria identified the "elect lady" as a specific individual. He wrote that II John "was written to virgins. It was written to a Babylonian lady by the name Electa." (Clement of Alexandria, Fragments from Cassiodorus IV, 1-2 tr. by William Wilson, Fathers of the Second Century, A. Cleveland Coxe, ed., New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Company, 1885, vol. 2, p. 576.) Although he does not elaborate, it appears from this statement that Clement had heard of this woman and knew that she was the spiritual leader of virgins. Why he called her Babylonian is a mystery since Babylon had ceased to be a nation many generations earlier. Perhaps she was of Babylonian descent or came from pagan Rome, which Christians often derisively called "Babylon." Electa may have been the leader of an order of Christian virgins, or Clement may have assumed that her followers were virgins because of the growing emphasis on asceticism in his day, a half-century after the letter was written.
Usually, the converts who came under the pastoral care of such women were household members or women colleagues. In Electa's case, if Clement is correct, they were dedicated Christian virgins who constituted one of the order of the clergy in the ancient church along with widows. This brief letter closes by conveying a greeting from the church of another woman - "the children of your elect sister greet you." This woman was evidently their pastor since John again uses the term "children" which in his writings means Christians under the care of a spiritual leader. Also, he calls her "elect" which either means ordained or chosen.
An interesting possibility exists that these two women pastors were natural sisters as well as sisters in the Lord and in His work. We know from the late third and early fourth century church historian Eusebius that in his later years, the apostle Philip and two of his four daughters who were prophetesses lived at Hierapolis in Asia. A third daughter lived in Ephesus, the city where John preached. Unlike the other apostles who were martyred decades earlier, the apostle John lived to a very old age, possibly over 100 years. Close ties existed between John, the church at Ephesus, and Philip and his daughters. It is possible that after Philip's death, John wrote his second epistle to one of Philip's surviving daughters still ministering at Hierapolis (the "elect lady" or "Lady Electa") and conveyed greetings from her sister's church at Ephesus. If so, we have in II John evidence that these daughters of Philip established and led Christian communities.
The fourth-century church historian Eusebius quotes a letter written by Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, to Victor, bishop of Rome between 189-198 AD. "For in Asia, also, mighty luminaries have fallen asleep, which shall rise again at the last day, at the appearance of our Lord, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall gather again all the saints. Philip, one of the twelve apostles who sleeps in Hierapolis, and his two aged virgin daughters. Another of his daughters, who lived in the Holy Spirit, rests at Ephesus. Moreover, John, that rested on the bosom of our Lord, who was a priest that bore the sacerdotal plate, and martyr and teacher, he also rests at Ephesus." Quite possibly, the "elect lady" and her "elect sister" of II John are two of these "mighty luminaries" who "lived in the Holy Spirit" and whom Polycrates and Eusebius commemorated. (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, book III, chapter. xxxi tr. by Christian Frederick Cruse, Grand Rapids, MI; Baker Book House, 1955, p. 116.)
The bible declares that women will prophesy: 1 Cor. 11:5, “For every woman that prayeth or prophesieth…” Both the Hebrew (Nebrah), and Greek (Proph) uses of prophetess means (female preacher. (See Young’s Concordance, Pg. 780.) The word “Prophet” means a public expounder. The word “Prophesy” means to speak forth, or flow forth. In 1 Cor. 14:3, it says, “But he that prophesieth speaketh unto MEN to edification, and exhortation and comfort.”
When speaking of “man,” the bible is refering to both men and women inclusively. The word “mankind” also includes both men and women. For example, in 1 Cor. 13:1 - “Though I speak with the tongues of MEN and angels…” The word “MEN” includes women as well, for we do not have one language for men and another for women!
The dictionary says, prophesy is “to speak under divine inspiration…to preach.” Therefore we learn from the original translation, from the bible interpretation, and from the dictionary, that to prophesy means more than to tell the future, it is to speak publicly about the past, present, or future. It is to preach under the anointing of the Holy Spirit.
The Bible also teaches that God is not a respecter of persons, and He will use any and all who will serve Him, regardless of race, age or sex. Galatians 3:28, “…neither male nor female…for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.” Acts 10:34, ″… God is no respecter of persons.” Moses said in Numbers 11:29, “Are you jealous for my sake? I wish that all the Lord’s people were prophets and that the Lord would put his Spirit on them!”
The Old and New Testament prophets and prophetesses were preachers of God’s Word. Even if the words prophet and preacher could be separated, how could any prophesy to bring exhortation, comfort and edification to the church occur, if woman were forbidden to speak in church and was to keep silent. Would God inspire, “call” and anoint someone to do something that was wrong and sinful???
** (There is a difference between a prophet, and the spiritual gift of prophecy)
There is not one scripture in the bible that forbids women from preaching, on the contrary, there are many verses that encourage both men and women to preach, most notably, Mary Magdalene’s commission from Jesus to testify before the Apostles of all that she had seen and heard (John 20:11-18), and the Great Commission, Mark 16:15, “Preach the Gospel,” is to all believers, and to all the Church of Jesus Christ. The command to “Preach the Gospel” is to both male and female. Indeed, God has called and anointed many women to preach, prophesy, evangelize, judge and minister.
Deborah was a Judge for both civil and criminal cases (Judges 4:4-5).The Children of Israel came to Deborah for judgment. She was the chief ruler of Israel for 40 years, giving orders to the generals and all the army. She did the work of an evangelist, prophetess, Judge and preacher. God gave her authority over the mighty (Judges 5:13).
Miriam was a prophetess and a song leader in Israel. (Exodus 15:20; Numbers 12:1; Micah 8:4)
Five men went to Sister Hulah and communed with her. She spoke to a congregation of men concerning the book of the Law. A female preached to a man’s congregation, and her message was taken to the nation and produced a revival. (2 Kings 22:14)
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz’s Mother and Isaiah’s wife was a prophetess. (Isaiah 8:3)
The Talmud, primary source of Jewish religious law and theology, also mentions women who were considered prophetesses or preachers. These women were Deborah, Miriam, Huldah, Sarah, Hannah, Abigail, and Esther (Megillah 14a).
MARY MAGDALENE – Apostle to The Apostles
In June 2016, Pope Francis issued a new decree that elevated the liturgical celebration honouring Mary Magdalene from a memorial to a feast, putting her on par with the Apostles. This change is significant, as it not only places Mary Magdalene’s liturgical celebration on the same level as those of the Twelve Apostles, but it also recognizes her importance to the Church as being the first woman, other than the Blessed Virgin Mary, to be honoured with a feast day.
The reason for this decision, according to Archbishop Arthur Roche, Secretary of the Vatican’s Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, is that Mary Magdalene has the great honour of being the first witness to encounter the risen Lord and was also the first to announce Jesus’ Resurrection to the Apostles. Like the Apostles, Mary Magdalene was a disciple who accompanied Jesus and ministered to him (Luke 8:2-3). She followed him even to his Crucifixion, being one of the women present beneath his Cross.
Unlike the Twelve Apostles however, Mary Magdalene did not abandon Jesus in the hour of his Passion (Matthew 27:56, 61; Mark 15:40). She witnessed his death, the piercing of his side, and the blood and water flowing from it (John 19:34). She was the first to witness the empty tomb and the risen Christ, as well as being the first to announce this momentous event. Even though, at the time, a woman’s testimony was not considered valid legally, Jesus commissioned her to testify before the Apostles of all that she had seen and heard (John 20:11-18).
The late Pope, Saint John Paul II, concentrated much effort on the role and importance of women both in the mission of Jesus Christ, as well as in the mission of the Church as a whole, paying attention specifically to the unique role played by Mary Magdalene. In Mulieris dignitatem n. 16 (“On the Dignity and Vocation of Women”), he highlighted Mary Magdalene’s role as the first eyewitness of the risen Lord and as the first messenger who announced Jesus’ Resurrection to the Apostles. She was commissioned directly by the risen Christ to bear witness to him and share this joyous news with them. The Apostles in turn proclaimed the news of his Resurrection to the world.
Thus, Mary Magdalene has come to be called “Apostle of the Apostles” (Apostolorum Apostola), a title also used by St. Thomas Aquinas.Today, the example of Mary Magdalene is important in the Church as a model of genuine and faithful evangelization. As Archbishop Arthur Roche explains, “Mary Magdalene is an example of a true and authentic evangeliser, which is an evangelist who announces the central joyful message of Easter.” Her example is of particular importance in highlighting the role of women in the new evangelization. Their contribution can be valuable, as they can spread the gospel message to people and places that men are often unable to reach.
Retired Pope Benedict XVI also reflected on the figure and example of Mary Magdalene. He described her as a disciple of Jesus, who has a central role in the Gospels. In his address before the Angelus on July 23, 2006, he stated: “The story of Mary of Magdala reminds us all of a fundamental truth: a disciple of Christ is one who, in the experience of human weakness, has had the humility to ask for his help, has been healed by him and has set out following closely after him, becoming a witness of the power of his merciful love that is stronger than sin and death.”
So, the importance of Mary Magdalene and of all women in the life of the Church is significant indeed. The unique mission as witness to the resurrection and as role model for every woman in the Church emphasizes the relevance of Mary Magdalene’s position as an authentic disciple and true evangelizer.
WHAT ABOUT 1 TIMOTHY 2:11-12?
"But,” some will ask, “What about Paul's admonitions in I Corinthians 14:34 and I Timothy 2:12 for women to be silent?" For the sake of space, we will look at 1 Tim. 2:11-12 which many consider to be the Bible’s clearest statement against women functioning in leadership. It says, “Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence.” On the surface and out of context, this passage sounds quite clear in its restriction of women. But a different picture emerges when we consider four simple exegetical facts.
1 Timothy Was Written To An Individual, Not To A Church
First of all, the letter of 1 Timothy was written to an individual, not to a church. We should expect, therefore, that the things written in the letter are related to the situation of the individual, i.e. Timothy, to whom it was written. It is a “personal” letter.
1 Timothy Addresses A Personal, Local Situation in Ephesus
Secondly, vs. 3 of chpt. 1 clearly states the reason for this letter to Timothy. It is not to lay down a universal system of church order. It is to encourage and instruct him as he deals with a false teaching that is circulating among the Christians in Ephesus where he is located. This requires rightly dividing the word of truth (2 Tim. 2:15). Paul obviously was not issuing universal edicts for all churches of every time and place. He is addressing unique issues related to Timothy and the church in Ephesus.
A Strange Greek Word
That Paul is addressing a unique situation in Ephesus is further borne out by the fact that the word “authority” in 2:12 is a translation of the Greek word authentein which is found only here in the entire New Testament. If Paul is here giving a universal edict for church order, why doesn’t he use the normal word for authority, exousia, which he and all other New Testament writers use. Why does he here use a word that neither he nor any other New Testament writer ever uses--a word that refers to someone who claims to be the author or originator of something. The obvious answer is that Paul is here dealing with the unique situation that exists in Ephesus. If Paul had been giving a universal rule for church order in this passage, he would have used the normal New Testament word for authority.
Paul May Have Been Addressing A Particular Woman in Ephesus
Fourthly, this view is borne out by the fact that there is a change from the plural to the singular and then back to the plural in this passage. In vss. 9-10 of chpt. 2, Paul refers to “women” in the plural. But when he comes to the restrictive admonition of vss. 11-12, he changes to the singular and refers to “a woman.” Afterwards, in vs. 15, he returns again to the plural. This may indicate that, in writing this passage, Paul had a particular woman in mind who was primarily responsible for spreading the false teaching in Ephesus. Be that as it may, Paul, in this passage, is obviously addressing a unique, local situation in the city of Ephesus.
In their book, ‘I Suffer Not a Woman,’ Richard and Catherine Clark Kroeger explain that certain cultic worship practices involving female priestesses of Diana had invaded the first-century church. These priestesses promoted blasphemous ideas about sex and spirituality, and they sometimes performed rituals in which they pronounced curses on men and declared female superiority.
What Paul was most likely saying to the Ephesians was this: "I do not allow a woman to teach these cultic heresies, nor do I allow them to usurp authority from men by performing pagan rituals." He was not saying, as some Christians have assumed, "I do not allow godly Christian women to teach the Bible." In his day, Paul would have been thrilled to have had more skilled women who could teach the truth!
1 CORINTHIANS 11:3 & 14:34-35
Addionally, Paul's words in 1 Corinthians 11:3, "the head of woman is man" (NKJV). have been used to bolster the idea that women are subservient to men or that they cannot approach God without a male authority figure in their lives.
Paul's teaching in 1 Corinthians 11 about head coverings is a difficult passage, and Bible scholars don't agree on its meaning. However, most teach that Paul is addressing specific cultural concerns in first-century Corinth and that he is calling for propriety and order in a society where immorality and paganism had blurred gender distinctions.
As for 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, it doesn’t say anything about women preachers. If Paul intended this verse as a general rule to bar all women from speaking in the church, then they cannot teach Sunday School, testify, pray, prophesy, sing or even get saved, and this would contradict the rest of the bible, including what he stated in Galatians 3:28, “There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male or female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” (NIV),
In otherwords, women can pray, worship, study the Bible, preach or minister without a man’s approval or presence. How silly to think that a man, because of his gender, could add credibility to prayer or Spirit-empowered ministry! To believe this would be to trust in the flesh.
Furthermore, has mentioned above in “Woman Preachers” Jesus issued His first gospel commission to a woman (see Matt. 28:1-10), and both men and women were empowered to preach on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4).
The promise of the prophet Joel was that "sons and daughters" would prophesy after the Holy Spirit was given to the church (Joel 2:28, emphasis added). Yet we have taken one misunderstood verse from Paul's writings and used it to negate hundreds of other passages that support the full release of women into ministry.
Last but not least, women who exhibit strong leadership qualities are said to have a “spirit of Jezebel.” How absurd! Was Barak "deceived" when he took orders from Deborah? (Judg. 4:14) Did baby Jesus come under a harmful influence when Anna prophesied over Him? (Luke 2:36-38) Was Apollos spiritually emasculated when he submitted to the teaching of Priscilla? (Acts 18:26) Of course not! To associate women who serve God and humanity with Jezebel, a wicked Old Testament despot, is unfair and offensive, yet many in the church today often pin Jezebel's label on strong, anointed women because they feel threatened by them.
Let's stop the insults. If a woman is using manipulation to usurp authority or if she is spreading heresies, then she may deserve the Jezebel label - as do men who do such things. But women who walk in spiritual integrity and preach the Word of God with power deserve respect and support.
WOMAN PASTORS ON THE RISE
Based on all the evidence presented hearin, it is an undeniable fact that God calls and anoints women to preach the Gospel and to care for His flock. A study in 2017 reports that female pastors are on the rise with hundreds of licensed and ordained women pastors preaching, teaching, evangelizing, pastoring, doing mission work, and/or leading their church. God uses them for the salvation of the lost, deliverance from sin, gifts of the Spirit, and infilling of the Holy Spirit.
The Bible says, “Touch not mine anointed and do my prophets no harm.” (1 Chronicles 16:22) And may we be reminded of the scripture in Act 5:39,”If it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found even to fight against God.”
Considering the evidence preserved in the Bible of all the woman mentioned above, it is clear that the prophetic or preaching and pastoral ministering call does not belong to men alone. And, just like in biblical times, God is positioning women today and giving them divine opportunities to influence the culture for His glory.
http://www.eddiehyatt.com ("In the Spirit We’re Equal" Dr. Susan C. Hyatt)
http://www.TrumpetWind.org (Trumpet Wind List by Pastor Keith A Smith)